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英语美文:论学习 弗朗西斯·培根

作者: 八六文学网 发布时间: 2021年09月11日 17:36:44

  OF STUDIES Francis Bacon

  论学习 弗朗西斯·培根

  王佐良 译

  Studies serve for delight, for ornament, and for ability. Their chief use for delight, is in privateness and retiring; for ornament, is in discourse; and for ability, is in the judgment and disposition of business.


  ornament n.装饰,装饰物


  For expert and execute, and perhaps judge of particulars, one by one; but the general counsels, and the plots and marshalling of affairs, come best form those that are learned. To spend too much time in studies is sloth; to use them too much for ornament, is affectation; to make judgement wholly by their rules, is the humour of a scholar.

  练达之士虽能分别处理细事或一一判别枝节,然纵观统筹,全局策划,则舍好学深思者 莫属。读书费时过多易惰,文采藻饰太盛则矫,全凭条文断事乃学究故态。

  execute v.执行,处死,处决


  counsel n.协商,讨论,建议


  sloth n.懒散,懒惰


  They perfect nature, and are perfected by experience: for natural abilities are like natural plants, that need proyning by study; and studies themselves do give forth directions too much at large, except they be bounded in by experience.

  读书补天然之不足,经验又补读书之不足,盖天生才干犹如自然花草,读书然后知如何 修剪移接,而书中所示,如不以经验范之,则又大而无当。

  Crafty men contemn studies, simple men admire them, and wise men use them; for they teach not their own use; but that is a wisdom without them, and above them, won by observation.

  有一技之长者鄙读书,无知者羡读书,唯明智之士用读书,然书并不以用处告人,用书 之智不在书中,而在书外,全凭观察得之。

  Crafty a.灵巧的


  contemn v.侮辱,蔑视


  Read not to contradict and confute; nor to believe and take for granted; nor to find talk and discourse; but to weigh and consider.


  contradict v.反驳,驳斥


  confute v.驳斥,驳倒


  Some books are to be tasted, others to be swallowed, and some few to be chewed and digested; that is, some books are to be read only in parts; others to be read, but not curiously; and some few to be read wholly, and with diligence and attention. Some books also may be read by deputy, and extracts made of them by others; but that would be only in the less important arguments, and the meaner sort of books; else distilled books are, like common distilled waters, flashy things.

  书有可浅尝者,有可吞食者,少数则须咀嚼消化。换言之,有只需读其部分者,有只须 大体涉猎者,少数则须全读,读时须全神贯注,孜孜不倦。书亦可请人代读,取其所作 摘要,但只限题材较次或价值不高者,否则书经提炼犹如水经蒸馏,淡而无味。

  wholly a.完全的,全部的,十足的


  deputy n.副手,代表


  Reading maketh a full man; conference a ready man; and writing an exact man. And therefore, if a man write little, he had need have a great memory; if he confer little, he had need have a present wit; and if he read little, he had need have much cunning, to seem to know that he doth not.

  读书使人充实,讨论使人机智,笔记使人准确。因此不常做笔记者须记忆力特强,不常 讨论者须天生聪颖,不常读书者须欺世有术,始能无知而显有知。

  Histories make men wise; poets witty; the mathematics subtile; natural philosophy deep; moral grave; logic and rhetoric able to contend. Abeunt studia in morse.


  subtile a.隐约的,微妙的,敏锐的


  Nay there is no stand or impediment in the wit, but may be wrought out by fit studies: like as diseases of the body may have appropriate exercises. Bowling is good for the stone and reins; shooting for the lungs and breast; gentle walking for the stomach; riding for the head; and the like.